Saturday

AutoCAD 2008

Commands in AutoCAD
Line  : - Draws a simple lines-either a single line or a series of line segments end-to-end.
To draw a line
Command line :-  Line  or  L
Menu: -   Draw à Line
Draw Tool bar : -  Line
  1. Specify the first point : Select a point to begin the line
  2. specify next point or [Undo]: Select the line endpoint, or press U to remove the last line segment drawn
  3. Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: Continue to select points to draw consecutive lines, press <enter> to exit the command.
Line Type : - linetype is a command-line prompt that enables you to control the type of line you can draw. The default linetype is continuous Bylayer, but you can choose from several other types, such as a dotted or dashed line or a combination of the to Predefined linetypes are stored in a file called acad.lin.
Command line : Linetype or Ltype
Menu : FormatàLinetype
Line Weight :- Sets the you can select the lines thickness.
Command Line : Lweight
Menu : - Format à Lineweight
Offset : - Offset will offset only a single object. If you have multiple, sequential lines or arcs to offset, use the Pedit command to join them into one polyline object before performing the offset.
To offset a line
Command Line Offset or  O
Menu : Modifyà Offset
Modify tool bar : Offset
Specify offset distance or [Through]<through> : Enter a distance value to specify a constant distance to offset  and press enter key and click at forward to distance position.
Erase : - Erases or deletes one or several selected objects from a drawing.
Command Line: Erase or  E
Menu: - ModifyàErase
Modify Tool bar : Erase
Short Cut menu : Right click after selecting object.
Select objects: Select the objects to be erased by picking or using any selection method.
Trim :  Shortens an object to meet another object or objects. One or more objects may also be trimmed to a point of implied intersection - that is, to the point at which they would intersect  with the cutting edge if the cutting edge were extend out.
To trim an Object
Command Line : Trim  or Tr
Menu:  Modify à Trim
Modify tool bar à Trim
  1. Current Settings: Projection = UCS edge=none
Select cutting edges……….
Right button click
Then select the required line or object
Extend : It lengthens an object to meet another object. Objects that can be extended include arcs, elliptical arcs, lines, open polylines, and rays. You can extend objects to an “implied” as well as to an actual boundary.
To Extend an Object:
Command line : Extend or Ex
Menu: Modify àExtend
Modify toolbar : Extend
Then Right button click of the mouse and click at extended line.
Circle : -Circle offers several methods for drawing circles, the default being to choose a center point and enter or pick a diameter or radius.
To Draw a Circle
Comand Line : Circle or  C
Menu : Draw à CircleàCenter, Radius/Center, Diameter/ 2 Points / 3 Points/ Tan, Tan, Radius/Tan, Tan, Tan
Draw Toolbar: Circle
  1. Specify center point for circle or [3p/2p/Ttr[tan tan radius)] : Pick a center point or enter an option.
  2. Specify radius of circle or diameter : Provides the radius by dynamically dragging, entering a value or pressing the Letter D to display the prompt specify diameter of circle.
Rotate : I rotaes an object or group of objects to a specified angle.
To rotate Objects
Command line : Rotate or Ro
Menu : Modify àrotate
Modify tool bar: Rotate
  1. Current positive angle in UCS: ANGDIR-Counterclockwise AngBASE=0.
    1. Select objects: Select as many objects as you like. And press Enter key.
  2. Specify base point: Pick the point about which objects are to be rotated.
  3. Specify rotation angle or [rotation angle]” enter the angle of rotation, and press Enter key.
Copy : - Copies the single object or a set of objects.
To Copy
Command Line : Copy or Co or  cp
Menu : Modify à Copy
Shortcut menu : Copy
Modify tool bar :  Copy Objects.
  1. Select object : Select objects to be copied.
  2. Specify base point or displacement , or [Multiple] :  pick the reference, or base point, for copy, or enter M for multiple copies.
  3. Specify second point of displacement or <use first point as displacement> : Pick the copy distance and direction  in relation to the base point or press enter to use the first point’s displacement value.
Mirror : It makes a mirror image copy of an object or a group of objects.
To mirror objects
Command Line : Mirror
Menu Modify à Mirror
Modify Tool bar à Mirror
  1. Select objects: Pick the objects to be mirrored. And press enter key
  2. specify first point of mirror line : pick one end of the mirror axis.
  3. Specify second point of mirror line: Pick the other end of the mirror axis.
  4. Delete source Objects? [Yes/No]<N>: Enter Y to delete the originally selected objects, or press enter to keep them.
Array : It makes multiple copies of an object or group of obuects in a row and column matrix, a single row or column, or a circular array (to form such objects as teeth in a gear or the numbers on a circular clock).
To create Object Arrays:
Command line : Array or ar
Menu :  Modify à Array
Modify Toolbar : Array
  1. Selct object : Pick objects to array.
  2. Tick on  the type of array [Rectangular or Polar] , Tick on at polar
    1. Specify center point of array : Type center point  X and Y.
    2. Enter the number of items in the array : Enter number of items in the array, including the originally selected objects.
    3. If you select the rectangular then specify the row and column. And give the row and column offsets.
    4. Then click on Ok button.
Chamfer : Chamfer joins two nonparallel lines with an intermediate line or bevel or adds intermediate lines between the line segments of a 2d polyline. You can chamfer a spline, ellipse, 3d polyline, ray, xline, segments of polylines, and polyline arcs as well as lines and polyines.
To use Chamfer
Command Line : Chamfer or Cha
Menu : Modify à Chamfer
Modify tool bar : Chamfer
  1. (TRIM Mode) Current chamfer Dist1=0.50000, Dist2=0.5000 Select first line or [polyline/distance/angle/trim/Method]: Pick first line or enter an option.
  2. Select second line : Pick second line.
Fillet : Fillet uses an intermediate arc to join two nonparallel lines, a line, and an arc or segments of a polyline.
To use Fillet
Command Line : Fillet or  F
Menu : - Fillet
Modify Toolbar : Fillet
  1. Current Settings: Mode = TRIM, Radius=0.5000
    1. Select First Object or [ Polyline/Radius/Trim] : Pick the first line to fillet
    2. Select Second Line : Pick the second line
Construction or Xline
Xline creates an infinite line based on two input points. The first point specified-the root-becomes the “midpoint” of the infinite line. You may specify the Xline’s orientation in a variety of ways.
To Draw construction line
Command line : Xline, Xl
Menu : Draw à Construction line
Draw toolbar à Construction line.
  1. Specify a point or [Hor/Ver/Ang/Bisect/Offset] Pick a first point ( the xline “Root” or midpoint) or select an option
  2. Specify the through point : Pick a second point or enter coordinates to orient the Xline. Continue to pick additional through point as required to create additional construction lines radiation from the midpoint.
Scale : Scale changes the size of objects in a drawing . You can also scale an object by reference
To resize Objects
Command line : Scale or S
Menu: Modify à Scale
Modify tool bar à Scale
  1. Select objects: Pick the objects to be scaled.
  2. Specify base point : Pick a point of reference for scaling.
  3. Specify scale actor or [reference] : Enter the scale factor, move the cursor to usually select new scale, or enter R to select the reference option.
Move : It moves or displaces the single object or  group of objects.
Command Line : Move or M
Menu: Modify à Move
Modify Toolbar: Move
  1. Select object: Select the object to be moved.
  2. Press enter and specify the base point and drag and drop at destination.
Region :- The Region command allows you to create 2D enclosed areas from existing overlapping closed shapes (called loops). The loops can be combinations of lines, polylines, circles, arcs, elliples, elliptical arcs, and splines.
To create Regions
Command line : Region, reg
Menu : - Draw à Region
Draw toolbar : Region
  1. Select objects: Select the objects you wish to combine into a region.
  2. Press [cr] to end the command. The command line shows how many loops were detected and how many regions were created.
You can create composite regions by subtracting, combining, or finding the intersection of regions.
Ray : Ray creates the “semi-infinite” lines that are generally used as construction lines to a drawing. The ray extends from a selected point to infinity.
To create a Ray
Command line : Ray
Draw à Ray
  1. Specify start point : specify a start point for the ray
  2. Specify through point : Specify the point through which you want the ray to pass
  3. Continue to specify points to create multiple rays, if required, and then press enter key.
Rectangle : It allows you to draw a rectangular polyline which chamfered or filleted corners, thichkness, elevation, and width.
To Draw a Rectangle
Command line : Rectangle of Rectang or rec
Menu: Draw à Rectanle
Draw Toolbar : Rectanle.
  1. Specify first corner point of [Chamfer/Elevation/Fillet/Thickness/Width]: Specify a point, or type one of the uppercase letters as indicated in steps 3-7.
  2. 2. Specify other corner point : Specify the opposing corner.
Explode : Explode reduces a block polyline, associative dimension, body, multi line, polyface, polygon mess, region, group, or 3d mess or solid to its component objects.
To explode an Object:
Command line : Explode, X
Menu Modify à Explode
Modify Toolbar: Explode
Select the object and press enter key.
Hatch :  It fills an area defined by lines, arcs, circles, or oplylines with either a predefined pater, a user-define dpatern, or a solid or simple non-asociative hatch paten. The equivalent dialog command is Bhatch.
To select a Hatch
Command line : Hatch, or –H
Then a hatch dialog box will appear
Select the fill style and select the  object and click on Ok button.
Image : It inserts images in different format, such as .bmp, .tif, .rle, .jpg, . gif etc into a n autocad drawing file. The equivalent command line prompt is –image.
To inset an Image
Command Line : Image or Im
Menu: Insert à Image  Manager
Insert Toolbar à Image
Polygon : It allows you to draw a regular polygon of up to 1024 sides. To define the polygon, you can specify the outside or inside radius or the length of one side. The polygon is actually a polyline that can be exploded into its individual component lines. Use the Pedit command to edit a polygon’s width.
To Draw a Polygon
Command line : Polygon or Pol
Menu : Draw à Polygon
Draw tool bar: Polygon
1.Enter number of sides:
Specify center of polygon or edge
Specify the radius of circle  and press enter key
Spline : it fits a smooth  curve to a set of points with a defined tolerance. The particular kind of spline created by AutoCAD is a NURBS(nonuniform relational B-spline) curve. Splines can be used to produce irregularly shaped curves for mapping
To Draw a Spline
Command line : Spline , Spl
Menu Draw à Spline
Draw Toolbar : Spline
  1. Specify first point or object: Specify a point or enter o the O for object to convert to spline.
  2. Continue to enter point until you have dfined th spline curve.
  3. When you have added all of the required spline segments, press enter
  4. Specify start tangent: If desired, specify the tangency of the spline, or press <enter>
  5. Specify end tangent: pick a point, or press <enter> to terminate the spline.
Arc : - Arc allows you to draw an arc using a variety of methods. The system prompts shown below will very with the options chosen.
Command line à Arc
Menu Draw à Arc à Preset Option
  1. Specify start point of arc or [Center]: pick the start point or click anywhere on the screen.
  2. Specify second pint of arc or [Center/End]: Pick second point of the arc or click other place.
  3. Specify the end point of arc or [Angle/chord Length]: Pick the center of the arc, or specify a value for selected option or click.
Area : Area carries out an are calculation based on dimensions that you specify by defining line segments, by selecting lines and polylines, or by doing both.
To Calculate an Area
Command line : Area
Menu : Tools à Inquiry à Area
Standard tool bar : Distance Flyout Area
Inquiry Toolbar : Area
  1. Specify first corner point or [Object/Add/Subtract]: Pick first point or enter the option
  2. Specify next corner point or press ENTER for Total: Pick the next point. Continue picking points until you have defined the are, and then press < enter > to display the calculated area and perimeterarea in the following format.
Area=<calculated area>, Perimeter=<perimeter>
Block : Blick display the same block definition dialog. You can then insert, copy, mirror, move , rotate, scle or save the block as an external file. To display prompts at the command line, use block.
To create a blick
Command line : Bmake or Block
Menu  : Draw à Block à Make
Draw tool bar :  Make block
Then a block dialog box will appear.
Type the name of the block.
Pick the point at select object and select the object to which you want to make blick
Then press enter and click on ok button.
Insert :  Insert opens the insert dialog  to insert a named block or drawing. Within the current file.
To insert a block
Command line : Insert  or I
Menu : Insert à Block
Insert toolbar : Inset Block
Then provide information as needed in the dialog box.
Lengthen : It changes the length of selected objects and the included angle of an arcs. Closed objects cannot be lengthened.
To lengthen an object
Command line : Lengthen, Len.
Menu : Modify à Lengthen
Modify toolbar: Lengthen
Select an object or [Delta/Percent/total/Dynamic]: Select an object to display length or enter an option.
Mtext :  Mtext allows you to create long, complex text entries, consisting of any  number of lines or paragraphs of text. Multiline or paragraph text fits within a specified width in the drawing but may run to any length.
Command Line  : Mtext or  Mt, T
Menu : Draw à text __ Multiline text
Draw tool bar : Multiline text
Click at required screen.
And begin to type.
Ellipse :  Ellipse draws an ellipse for which you specify the major and minor axes, a center point, and two axis points, or it draws, the center point and the radius or diamerter of an isometric circle. It also lets  you define a second projection of a 3D circle by using the Rotation option.
To Draw an Ellipse
Command line : Ellipse or EL
Menu : Draw à Center/Axis, End / Arc
Draw Toolbar : Ellipse
Sketch : Sketch allows you to draw freehand. It actually draws short line segments end to end to achieve this effect. The lines Sketch draws are only temporary lines that show the path of the cursor,. To save the line, you must use the Record and exit option
To Draw FreeHand
Command line : Sketch
Close : It will closes the open window or your drawing window:
Command line :  Close <enter>
Superhatch : It opens a dialog box with opens to crate a hatch patern using an image, block, xref, or wipeout object.
Command line :  Superhatch
Menu: Draw à Super Hatch
Txtexp: Change text and mtext to lines and for arcs, allowing  their elevation and thickness to be edited command line txtexp
Command line: Txtexp
Select the text and press enter key.
Wipeout :  Hides entities defined by a polyline for display and plotting, Wipeouts in Paper Space used for objects in Model Space are ignored during plotting.
Command Line : Wipeout
Express Menu:  Draw à Wipeout
Txt2mtxt : Changes selected text to Mtext.
Command line : Txt2mtxt
Express Menu: Text--? Convert text to Mtext
Color : The color opens the select color dialog box and allows you to set the color for new objects. Once you select a color, all objects will be given the selected color regardless of their layers, unless of specify by layer or by black as the color.
Command Line :  Color
Menu : Format àColor ..
Select the required color form the dialog box.
Dimension Tools
Linear :It creates a linear dimension.  It allows you to position liner dimension in either a horizontal or a vertical directin as well as allows you to rotate the dimension line and ext to a specified angle. This command combines the dimensioning subcommands: DIM; Horizontal or Hor, Dim: Vertical or ver and dim: rotate or ro.
To Create linear dimensions
Command line : Dimlinear, dimed
Menu: Dimension à Linear
Dimension Tool bar:  Linear dimension
Point from start to end to set the dimension
Aligned : It aligns a dimension with two points or an object. The dimension text appears in the current style. Dimension settings are modified with the Ddim dialog
To Align a dimension
Command line : Dimaligned or dimali
Dimensin toolbar: Aligned Dimension
Menu : Dimensin à Aligned
Specify the first point and last point of the object.
Arc Length :
Ordinate :  It create dimension string based on a datum or origin point. The dimensioning mode equivalent is Dim <enter> Ordinate or To set the origin point, use the UCS command, and specify an origin point for the part., e.g, the lower left corner of the part.
To Create Ordinate Dimensioning
Command Line : Dimordinate
Menu: Dimension à ordinate
  1. Specify feature location : Pick the location of the feature to be dimensioned.
  2. 2. Sepcify leader endpoint or [xdatum/ydatum/mtxt.
Radious  : It adds a radius dimension to arcs and circle in essentially the same way the Dimdiameter adds diameter dimensions.
To Add a Radius Dimensin
Command line: Dimradius
Menu: Dimension àRadius
Dimension Toolbar : Radius Dimension.
Jogged : it measures the radius of the selected object and displays the dimension text with a radius symbol in front of it. The origin point of the dimension line can be specified at any convenient location. Jogged radius dimensions are also called foreshortened radius dimensions. Specify center location override: Specify a point Accepts a new center point for a jogged radius dimension that takes the place of the true center point of the arc or circle.
To create joined radius dimension:
Command line : dimjogged
Menu: Dimension àJogged
Select arc or circle: Select an arc, circle, or polyline arc segment

Diameter : It draws different types of diameter dimensions, depending upon the size of the arc or circle and upon the dimension settings created in the Dimstyle dialog. The dimensioning mode equivalent is Dim or Diameter
To Dimension an Arc or Circle Diameter
Command Line : Dimdiameter or Ddi, Dimdia
Menu: Dimension à Diameter
Dimension toolbar : Diameter Dimensin
  1. Select arc or circle: Pick the arc or circle as appropriate
  2. Specify dimension line location
Angular: Creates a dimension label showing the angle described by an arc, circle, or two lines or by a set of three points. An arc with dimension arrows at each end is drawn, and the angle value is placed using current text style.
To Create the angle dimension Label
Command  line : Dimangular
Menu: Dimensin__Angular
Dimension toolbar: Angular Dimension
  1. Select arc, circle, line, or specify verext.
  2. Specify dimension arc line location .
Quick Dimension
Base Line :  It continues string using the first extension line of the most recently inserted dimension as its first extension line. You are prompted only the  second extension line origin. Each new dimension is offset by an increment set in the Dimdi system variable from the previous dimension lien. Prompt  variable depending on the type of dimension that was last created .
To Continue a Dimension from the Base line
Command line: Dimbaseline
Menu: Dimension à baseline
Dimension toolbar:  Baseline Dimension
  1. Specify a second extension line origin and continue pickup the points. 
Continue : it draws series, or “chain,” of related dimension by using the second extension line of the most recently inserted dimension as its first extension line. All the “chained” dimension measurements add upto a total measurement of the object. You are prompted only for the dimension are placed in line with and parallel to this dimension. The Dimfit system variable controls the positioning of the dimension line and text between the selected point.
To Continue Dimension
Command line : Dimcontinue
Menu: Dimension à Continue
Dimension toolbar: continue Dimension
  1. Specify a second extension line origin and continue pickup the point.
Dimension Space
Dimension Break
Tolarance
Center Mark : It places a cross at the center point of a selected arc or circle. To choose center lines instead of center marks, and to change the size of the center mark, use the dimcen dimension variable or reset them in the geometry dialog of the ddim command.
To Mark the Center of an Arc or Circle
Command Line : Dimcenter
Menu : dimension -àCenter Mark
Dimension toolbar: Center mark
Select arc or circle: Pick an arc or circle, and the mark will appear.
Inspection
Jogged Liner : Specifies the linear or aligned dimension to which to add a jog. You are prompted for the location of the jog.
To Jogged linear dimension
Command line : DimJogline
Menu: Dimensionà Jogged line
Dimension Edit
Dimension text edit
Dimension Update
Units :  Units sets autoCAD to the unit format appropriate to the drawing. For example, if you are drawing an architectural floor plan, you can set up AutoCAD to accept and display distances using feet, inches, and fractional inches. You can also set up AutoCAD to accept and display angles as degrees minutes, and seconds of an arc rather then the default decimal degrees. The dialog equivalent this  command is units
Command line : Units
Menu: Format à Units
Then a dialog box will appear
Set the required measurement uint and click on Ok button.
Ortho ( F8)
It forces lines to be drawn in exactly perpendicular directions following the orientation of the crosshairs. It can be used to force lines to angles other than 90 degrees, rotate the cursor using the Sniping system variable or by setting the Rotate option under the Snap command.
To Turn Ortho On or Off
Command Line : Ortho, 
Click on Ortho in the status bar.
Osnap(F3) :  It opens the object snap tab of the Drafting settings, allowing you to have multiple object snap modes active while picking specific geometric points on an object and to set the target box size for your graphic’s cursor corossharis. To override a running Osnap, enter the specific Osnap at the command line.
Snap(F9)  : It controls the settings for the Snap Mode. The Snap mode allows you to accurately place the cursor by forcing it to move in specified increments.
Grid ( F7) :It turns on the grid and sets the grid spacing.\
Polar(F10) : -Polar tracking restricts cursor movement to specified angles. PolarSnap restricts cursor movement to specified increments along a polar angle.
Otrack(F11)
Dynmic UCS (F6)
Dynamic Input (F12)
Clean Screen Ctrl + 0